Henderson, L. (1996). Instructional design of interactive multimedia: a cultural critique. Educational Technology Research & Development, 44(4), 85-104.

Henderson “theoriz[es] cultural contextuality as a variable of consequence in IMM instructional design” (p.85). First, she develops her argument that instructional design paradigms are influenced by “a) world view; b) values, ideologies, culture, class, and gender; and c) commitment to a particular design paradigm” (p. 86). Then she reviews paradigms found to inform instructional design: objectivism, constructivism, and eclectic; she follows this with an exploration of deracialization in instructional design before introducing and showing gaps in instructional design paradigms that approach issues of culture: inclusive or perspectives paradigm and the inverted curriculum approach. Finally, she proposes her own “multiple cultural model” to address the gaps and weaknesses in the examined paradigms. Modifying Reeves (1992) pedagogic dimensions of interactive learning, she lays multiple cultural contextuality across all dimensions of the continuum to emphasize its pervasive presence.