Narayan, A. & Steele-Johnson, D. (2007). Relationships between prior experience of training, gender, goal-orientation and training attitudes. International Journal of Training & Development (11)3. 166-180.

Because of significant evidence establishing the relationship between training attitudes and training outcomes, Narayan and Steele-Johnson (2007) seek to determine antecedent influences on training attitudes in “Relationships between prior experience of training, gender, goal-orientation and training attitudes.” The researchers gathered data about demographics, training attitudes and goal-orientation on a sample of undergraduate university students with work experience in service and manufacturing industries. They developed a measure of training attitudes for this study, noting that instruments for training climate were available but not for the training attitude construct itself. The instrument was designed to measure participant’s perceptions of: 1) relevance and usefulness; 2) supervisory support; and 3) desire to practice trained skills on the job and found to have a high level of internal consistency. Findings revealed a positive correlation between favorable training attitudes and higher levels of mastery-approach goal orientation and more experience with training. This correlation was found to be significantly stronger for men than for women as women reported more favorable training attitudes overall. These authors suggest that these findings extend the support of prior theories about influences on training attitudes to include prior experiences and a gender interaction effect of goal-orientation.