Rogers, C. P., Graham, C. R., & Mayes, C. T. (2007). Cultural competence and instructional design: Exploration research into the delivery of online instructoin cross-culturally. Educational Technology Research & Development, 55(2), 197-217.

Interviews 12 instructional designers about their experiences creating online instruction for people of other cultures. Research questions: “1) Are they aware of the differences between themselves and the cultural group for whom they are designing instruction? 2) If so: a) How did they become aware of these differences? b) What importance do these differences assume in their thinking? c) How does understanding cultural difference affect instructional design practice?” (p.199) Results for the first question about awareness of cultural differences were categorized into these themes: general cultural and social expectations, teaching and learning expectations, differences in the use of language and symbols, and technological infrastructure and familiarity. Results for the first part of the second question about how they became aware of differences revealed unique experiences from formal and intentional to informal and unintentional; in response to the second part of the question about importance placed on cultural differences, these barriers emerged: “a) an over-emphasis on content development as the center of practice and under emphasis on context and learner experience, b) a relative lack of evaluation in real-world practice, and c) the creation of less than ideal roles that instructional designers assume in the larger organizational structures involved” (p. 207). To describe the results from the third part of the second question about the impact of cultural awareness on instructional design, the authors use a metaphor of “building bridges” to “[stimulate] a) separating deeper principles from particular application, b) identifying gaps where bridges are needed, c) allowing for more flexibility in the design process, and d) educating other stakeholders so they are invested in bridge building too” (p. 210). As part of “identifying gaps,” these three practices are mentioned: “a) immersing oneself in the culture, b) integrating learner feedback in up-front analysis, and c) integrating learner feedback through formative evaluation” (p.211).