Dick, W. (1996) The Dick and Carey model: Will it survive the decade? Educational Technology Research & Development, 44(3), 55–63.

Dick examines his popular and widely –used instructional design model for future viability by reviewing its evolution and competitors. He pinpoints the first public introduction of the model to a presentation in 1968, “New Directions in Learning.” He attributes changes in the most recent edition of the model (1996) to influences from: performance technology, context analysis, multi-level evaluation models, and total quality management. Includes a statement that may sum up the basis for much of the criticism of the lack of empirical basis for prescriptive models in instructional design: “There were almost no practitioners when the model was developed, therefore, it was never intended to be a reflection of what practitioners actually do” (p.58).