Edmonds, G. S., Branch, R. C. & Mukherjee, P. (1994). A Conceptual Framework for Comparing Instructional Design Models. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(4), 55-72.

Edmonds, Branch & Mukherjee propose a conceptual framework for comparing instructional design models that consists of the following categories and subcategories: orientation- prescriptive, descriptive and elements of both; knowledge structure- procedural, declarative and elements of both; expertise level- expert, intermediate, novice and suitable for all; structure- system, soft-system, intuitive and aspects of each; context- K-12, higher education, business and government; and level- unit, module, lesson, course, institutional and mass.